Networking Interview Questions and Answers :
1. What is an Object server?
With an object server, the Client/Server application is written as a set of communicating objects. Client object communicate with server objects using an Object Request Broker (ORB). The client invokes a method on a remote object. The ORB locates an instance of that object server class, invokes the requested method and returns the results to the client object. Server objects must provide support for concurrency and sharing. The ORB brings it all together.
2. What is a Transaction server?
With a transaction server, the client invokes remote procedures that reside on the server with an SQL database engine. These remote procedures on the server execute a group of SQL statements. The network exchange consists of a single request/reply message. The SQL statements either all succeed or fail as a unit.
3. What is a Database Server?
With a database server, the client passes SQL requests as messages to the database server. The results of each SQL command are returned over the network. The server uses its own processing power to find the request data instead of passing all the records back to the client and then getting it find its own data. The result is a much more efficient use of distributed processing power. It is also known as SQL engine.
4. What are the most typical functional units of the Client/Server applications?
- User interface
- Business Logic and
- Shared data.
5. What are all the Extended services provided by the OS?
- Ubiquitous communications
- Network OS extension
- Binary large objects (BLOBs)
- Global directories and Network yellow pages
- Authentication and Authorization services
- System management
- Network time
- Database and transaction services
- Internet services
- Object- oriented services
6. What are Triggers and Rules?
Triggers are special user defined actions usually in the form of stored procedures, that are automatically invoked by the server based on data related events. It can perform complex actions and can use the full power of procedural languages.
A rule is a special type of trigger that is used to perform simple checks on data.
7. What is meant by Transparency?
Transparency really means hiding the network and its servers from the users and even the application programmers.
8. What are TP-Lite and TP-Heavy Monitors?
TP-Lite is simply the integration of TP Monitor functions in the database engines. TP-Heavy are TP Monitors which supports the Client/Server architecture and allow PC to initiate some very complex multiserver transaction from the desktop.
9. What are the two types of OLTP?
TP lite, based on stored procedures. TP heavy, based on the TP monitors.
10. What is a Web server?
This new model of Client/Server consists of thin, protable, "universal" clients that talk to superfat servers. In the simplet form, a
11. What are Super servers?
These are fully-loaded machines which includes multiprocessors, high-speed disk arrays for intervive I/O and fault tolerant features.
12. What is a TP Monitor?
There is no commonly accepted definition for a TP monitor. According to Jeri Edwards' a TP Monitor is "an OS for transaction processing".
13. TP Monitor does mainly two things extremely well. They are Process management and Transaction management.?
They were originally introduced to run classes of applications that could service hundreds and sometimes thousands of clients. TP Monitors provide an OS - on top of existing OS - that connects in real time these thousands of humans with a pool of shared server processes.
14. What is meant by Asymmetrical protocols?
There is a many-to-onebetween clients and server. Clients always initiate the dialog by requesting a service. Servers are passively awaiting for requests from clients.
15. What are the types of Transparencies?
The types of transparencies the NOS middleware is expected to provide are:-
- Location transparency
- Namespace transparency
- Logon transparency
- Replication transparency
- Local/Remote access transparency
- Distributed time transparency
- Failure transparency and
- Administration transparency.
16. What is the difference between trigger and rule?
The triggers are called implicitly by database generated events, while stored procedures are called explicitly by client applications.
17. What are called Transactions?
The grouped SQL statements are called Transactions (or) A transaction is a collection of actions embused with ACID properties.
18. What are the building blocks of Client/Server?
- The client
- The server and
19. Explain the building blocks of Client/Server?
The client side building block runs the client side of the application.
The server side building block runs the server side of the application.
20. The middleware buliding block runs on both the client and server sides of an application. It is broken into three categories:-
- Transport stack
- Network OS
- Service-specific middleware.
21. What are all the Base services provided by the OS?
- Task preemption
- Task priority
- Interprocess communications (IPC)
- Local/Remote Interprocess communication
- Intertask protection
- High performance file system
- Efficient memory management and
- Dynamically linked Run-time extensions.
22. What are the roles of SQL?
- SQL is an interactive query language for ad hoc database queries.
- SQL is a database programming language.
- SQL is a data definition and data administration language.
- SQL is the language of networked database servers
- SQL helps protect the data in a multi-user networked environment.
- Because of these multifacted roles it plays, physicists might call SQL as "The grand unified theory of database".
23. What is Structured Query Langauge (SQL)?
SQL is a powerful set-oriented language which was developed by IBM research for the databases that adhere to the relational model. It consists of a short list of powerful, yet highly flexible, commands that can be used to manipulate information collected in tables. Through SQL, we can manipulate and control sets of records at a time.
24. What are the characteristics of Client/Server?
- Shared resources
- Asymmentrical protocols
- Transparency of location
- Message based exchanges
- Encapsulation of services
Client/Server computing is the ultimate "Open platform". It gives the freedom to mix-and-match components of almost any level. Clients and servers are loosely coupled systems that interact through a message-passing mechanism.
25. What is Remote Procedure Call (RPC)?
RPC hides the intricacies of the network by using the ordinary procedure call mechanism familiar to every programmer. A client process calls a function on a remote server and suspends itself until it gets back the results. Parameters are passed like in any ordinary procedure. The RPC, like an ordinary procedure, is synchoronous. The process that issues the call waits until it gets the results.
Under the covers, the RPC run-time software collects values for the parameters, forms a message, and sends it to the remote server. The server receives the request, unpack the parameters, calls the procedures, and sends the reply back to the client. It is a telephone-like metaphor.
26. What are the main components of Transaction-based Systems?
- Resource Manager
- Transaction Manager and
- Application Program.
27. What are the three types of SQL database server architecture?
- Process-per-client Architecture. (Example: Oracle 6, Informix )
- Multithreaded Architecture. (Example: Sybase, SQL server)
- Hybrid Architecture (Example: Oracle 7)
28. What are the Classification of clients?
Non-GUI clients - Two types are:-
- Non-GUI clients that do not need multi-tasking
(Example: Automatic Teller Machines (ATM), Cell phone)
- Non-GUI clients that need multi-tasking
29. What are called Non-GUI clients, GUI Clients and OOUI Clients?
Non-GUI Client: These are applications, generate server requests with a minimal amount of human interaction.
GUI Clients: These are applicatoins, where occassional requests to the server result from a human interacting with a GUI
(Example: 3.x, NT 3.5)
OOUI clients : These are applications, which are highly-iconic, object-oriented user interface that provides seamless access to information in very visual formats.
(Example: MAC OS, Windows 95, NT 4.0)
30. What is Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)?
MOM allows general purpose messages to be exchanged in a Client/Server system using message queues. Applications communicate over networks by simply putting messages in the queues and getting messages from queues. It typically provides a very simple high level APIs to its services.
MOM's messaging and queuing allow clients and servers to communicate across a network without being linked by a private, dedicated, logical connection. The clients and server can run at different times. It is a post-office like metaphor.
31. What is meant by Middleware?
Middleware is a distributed software needed to support interaction between clients and servers. In short, it is the software that is in the middle of the Client/Server systems and it acts as a bridge between the clients and servers. It starts with the API set on the client side that is used to invoke a service and it covers the transmission of the request over the network and the resulting response.
It neither includes the software that provides the actual service - that is in the servers domain nor the user interface or the application login - that's in clients domain.
32. What are the functions of the typical server program?
It waits for client-initiated requests. Executes many requests at the same time. Takes care of VIP clients first. Initiates and runs background task activity. Keeps running. Grown bigger and faster.
33. What is meant by Symmentric Multiprocessing (SMP)?
It treats all processors as equal. Any processor can do the work of any other processor. Applications are divided into threads that can run concurrently on any available processor. Any processor in the pool can run the OS kernel and execute user-written threads.
34. What are Service-specific middleware?
It is needed to accomplish a particular Client/Server type of services which includes:-
- Database specific middleware
- OLTP specific middleware
- Groupware specific middleware
- Object specific middleware
- Internet specific middleware and
- System management specific middleware.
35. What are General Middleware?
It includes the communication stacks, distributed directories, authentication services, network time, RPC, Queuing services along with the network OS extensions such as the distributed file and print services.
36. What is meant by Asymmetric Multiprocessing (AMP)?
It imposses hierarchy and a division of labour among processors. Only one designated processor, the master, controls (in a tightly coupled arrangement) slave processors dedicated to specific functions.
37. What is OLTP?
In the transaction server, the client component usually includes GUI and the server components usually consists of SQL transactions against a database. These applications are called OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) OLTP Applications typically,
Receive a fixed set of inputs from remote clients. Perform multiple pre-compiled SQL comments against a local database. Commit the work and Return a fixed set of results.
38. What is meant by 3-Tier architecture?
In 3-tier Client/Server systems, the application logic (or process) lives in the middle tier and it is separated from the data and the user interface. In theory, the 3-tier Client/Server systems are more scalable, robust and flexible.
Example: TP monitor, Web.
39. What is meant by 2-Tier architecture?
In 2-tier Client/Server systems, the application logic is either burried inside the user interface on the client or within the database on the server.
Example: File servers and Database servers with stored procedures.
40. What is Load balancing?
If the number of incoming clients requests exceeds the number of processes in a server class, the TP Monitor may dynamically start new ones and this is called Load balancing.
41. What are called Fat clients and Fat servers?
If the bulk of the application runs on the Client side, then it is Fat clients. It is used for decision support and personal software.
If the bulk of the application runs on the Server side, then it is Fat servers. It tries to minimize network interchanges by creating more abstract levels of services.
42. What is meant by Horizontal scaling and Vertical scaling?
Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. Vertical scaling means migrating to a larger and faster server machine or multiservers.
43. What is Groupware server?
Groupware addresses the management of semi-structured information such as text, image, mail, bulletin boards and the flow of work. These Client/Server systems have people in direct contact with other people.
44. What are the two broad classes of middleware?
- General middleware
- Service-specific middleware.
45. What are the types of Servers?
- File servers
- Database servers Transaction servers Groupware servers
- Object servers Web servers.
46. What is a File server?
File servers are useful for sharing files across a network. With a file server, the client passes requests for file records over nerwork to file server.
47. What are the five major technologies that can be used to create Client/Server applications?
- Database Servers
- TP Monitors
- Distributed Objects
48. What is Client/Server?
Clients and Servers are separate logical entities that work together over a network to accomplish a task. Many systems with very different architectures that are connected together are also called Client/Server.
49. List out the benefits obtained by using the Client/Server oriented TP Monitors?
- Client/Server applications development framework.
- Firewalls of protection.
- High availability.
- Load balancing.
- MOM integration.
- Scalability of functions.
- Reduced system cost.
50. What are the services provided by the Operating System?
Extended services - These are add-on modular software components that are layered on top of base service.