Saturday, August 1, 2009

Wild cards (Filename Shorthand or meta Characters)

Wild card /Shorthand Meaning Examples
* Matches any string or group of characters. $ ls * will show all files
$ ls a* will show all files whose first name is starting with letter 'a'
$ ls *.c will show all files having extension .c
$ ls ut*.c will show all files having extension .c but file name must begin with 'ut'.
? Matches any single character. $ ls ? will show all files whose names are 1 character long
$ ls fo? will show all files whose names are 3 character long and file name begin with fo
[...] Matches any one of the enclosed characters $ ls [abc]* will show all files beginning with letters a,b,c

Note:
[..-..] A pair of characters separated by a minus sign denotes a range.

Example:
$ ls /bin/[a-c]*

Will show all files name beginning with letter a,b or c like

/bin/arch /bin/awk /bin/bsh /bin/chmod /bin/cp
/bin/ash /bin/basename /bin/cat /bin/chown /bin/cpio
/bin/ash.static /bin/bash /bin/chgrp /bin/consolechars /bin/csh

But
$ ls /bin/[!a-o]
$ ls /bin/[^a-o]

If the first character following the [ is a ! or a ^ ,then any character not enclosed is matched i.e. do not show us file name that beginning with a,b,c,e...o, like

/bin/ps /bin/rvi /bin/sleep /bin/touch /bin/view
/bin/pwd /bin/rview /bin/sort /bin/true /bin/wcomp
/bin/red /bin/sayHello /bin/stty /bin/umount /bin/xconf
/bin/remadmin /bin/sed /bin/su /bin/uname /bin/ypdomainname
/bin/rm /bin/setserial /bin/sync /bin/userconf /bin/zcat
/bin/rmdir /bin/sfxload /bin/tar /bin/usleep
/bin/rpm /bin/sh /bin/tcsh /bin/vi


The read Statement
More command on one command line
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