if...else...fi

If given condition is true then command1 is executed otherwise command2 is executed.
Syntax:

           if condition            then                        condition is zero (true - 0)                        execute all commands up to else statement             else                        if condition is not true then                        execute all commands up to fi            fi

For e.g. Write Script as follows:

$ vi isnump_n
#!/bin/sh
#
# Script to see whether argument is positive or negative
#
if [ $# -eq 0 ]
then
echo "$0 : You must give/supply one integers"
exit 1
fi


if test $1 -gt 0
then
echo "$1 number is positive"
else
echo "$1 number is negative"
fi

Try it as follows:
$ chmod 755 isnump_n

$ isnump_n 5

5 number is positive

$ isnump_n -45

-45 number is negative

$ isnump_n

./ispos_n : You must give/supply one integers

$ isnump_n 0

0 number is negative

Detailed explanation
First script checks whether command line argument is given or not, if not given then it print error message as "./ispos_n : You must give/supply one integers". if statement checks whether number of argument ($#) passed to script is not equal (-eq) to 0, if we passed any argument to script then this if statement is false and if no command line argument is given then this if statement is true. The echo command i.e.
echo "$0 : You must give/supply one integers"
| |
| |
1 2
1 will print Name of script
2 will print this error message
And finally statement exit 1 causes normal program termination with exit status 1 (nonzero means script is not successfully run).

The last sample run $ isnump_n 0 , gives output as "0 number is negative", because given argument is not > 0, hence condition is false and it's taken as negative number. To avoid this replace second if statement with if test $1 -ge 0.

Nested if-else-fi

You can write the entire if-else construct within either the body of the if statement of the body of an else statement. This is called the nesting of ifs.

$ vi nestedif.sh
osch=0

echo "1. Unix (Sun Os)"
echo "2. Linux (Red Hat)"
echo -n "Select your os choice [1 or 2]? "
read osch

if [ $osch -eq 1 ] ; then

echo "You Pick up Unix (Sun Os)"

else #### nested if i.e. if within if ######

if [ $osch -eq 2 ] ; then
echo "You Pick up Linux (Red Hat)"
else
echo "What you don't like Unix/Linux OS."
fi
fi

Run the above shell script as follows:
$ chmod +x nestedif.sh
$ ./nestedif.sh

1. Unix (Sun Os)
2. Linux (Red Hat)
Select you os choice [1 or 2]? 1
You Pick up Unix (Sun Os)

$ ./nestedif.sh
1. Unix (Sun Os)
2. Linux (Red Hat)
Select you os choice [1 or 2]? 2
You Pick up Linux (Red Hat)

$ ./nestedif.sh
1. Unix (Sun Os)
2. Linux (Red Hat)
Select you os choice [1 or 2]? 3
What you don't like Unix/Linux OS.

Note that Second if-else constuct is nested in the first else statement. If the condition in the first if statement is false the the condition in the second if statement is checked. If it is false as well the final else statement is executed.

You can use the nested ifs as follows also:
Syntax:

 if condition  then   if condition   then    .....    ..    do this   else    ....    ..    do this   fi  else   ...   .....   do this  fi
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